Some tips on refurbishing stone floors
With the development of the economy, the use of stone is becoming more and more widespread, especially in various public places. Stone is popular with people for its grace and luxury, and its use will age and become contaminated over time. And other issues, this can be initially resolved by cleaning, but sometimes it must be refurbished by grinding. The following is an introduction to abrasives and grinding tools to give everyone a preliminary understanding of this.
Introduction of abrasives and grinding tools for stone floor renovation
Abrasives are materials used for grinding and processing, and are generally divided into two categories: ordinary abrasives and super-hard abrasives.
Ordinary abrasives mainly include corundum (brown corundum, white corundum, etc.). Its main chemical composition is Al2O3 (aluminum dioxide), silicon carbide (black silicon carbide, green silicon carbide), and its main chemical composition is SiC (silicon carbide). ).
Corundum abrasives are brown corundum with a micro hardness of 2000-2200 kgf / mm2; white corundum with a micro hardness of 2200-2300kgf / mm2; black silicon carbide with a micro hardness of 3100-3300kgf / mm2 2; green silicon carbide, micro hardness 3200-3400 kgf / mm2; particle size from 4 #-micro powder W0.5 (even finer).
According to the order of abrasive hardness, we can sort out granite processing green silicon carbide, black silicon carbide, marble processing white corundum (soft), black, green silicon carbide (hard). In terms of material cost, green silicon carbide, black silicon carbide, and white corundum are in turn. Around these abrasives, inorganic grinding tools can be made, including magnetite and ceramics. Organic grinding tools, including phenol, are Saturated resins, epoxy resins, etc. (this also includes emery cloth sandpaper).
Super hard abrasive
Super hard abrasive mainly refers to diamond abrasive. Although its processing history is relatively long, but as more uses, it is a large amount of industrialized production in the past thirty years. Its micro hardness is 8000-10000 kgf / mm2, the hardness is the highest, and it is the micro-cutting mechanism when processing materials, so it is the first choice cutting tool. In recent years, there has been a large-scale increase in production and a reduction in industrial costs, high processing efficiency (more than 5 times that of ordinary), and good processing results (which can polish highly demanding materials), so its applications have become increasingly widespread.
Diamond grinding tools
Diamond grinding tools are mainly metal, resin, ceramic, etc., which are classified according to the type of bonding agent.
Metal-based grinding tools mainly include iron-based, copper-based, and cobalt-based types, which determine the processing costs of different types of materials. As a grinding tool, its particle size ranges from the coarsest (20 #), often to as fine as 400 #. Its characteristic is long life, but the cost will be higher.
Resin-based grinding tools have a relatively low production cost and relatively more applications. They are also currently used for rough grinding to polishing, which is their greatest advantage in fine-grain grinding and polishing.
Ceramic diamond grinding tools are the fastest growing tools in recent years. In terms of processing performance, they take the advantages of metal processing and avoid the short of resin processing. They have good technical advantages, but they have not been seen because of their cost Used in stone renovation.
Steps in the stone renovation process
The renovation of stone flooring generally involves the following steps:
The coarse-grained grinding tool is used to “level” the damaged surface and “cut”, or “level” the uneven part that has been laid. Generally, this process must be removed to a certain extent. Pay attention to overall flatness during construction.
Use coarser-grained tools to grind the stone to remove rough lines during processing, while maintaining the flatness of the construction surface.
In the fine grinding process, the removal amount is relatively small. Through 4-5 particle size numbers, the stone finish can be polished. Finally, the polishing process is required to achieve the stone renovation.
Selection of grinding tools for stone renovation
Bitter soil abrasive
Bitter soil abrasives are made by polymerizing silicon carbide abrasive with magnesium oxide and magnesium chloride. For the use of silicon carbide, green silicon carbide is better. Black silicon carbide is relatively cheaper. The particle size number is generally from 16 # to 1200 #. The hardness of the manufactured abrasive tool is also from hard to soft. It is characterized by low cost, good self-sharpness, and strong processing adaptability. It can process granite, marble, artificial stone, ceramic tiles, etc., but the processing efficiency is relatively low, the production cycle is relatively long, and the grinding head requires a large amount of work. Pressure is a conventional grinding tool. After the storage period of this abrasive tool exceeds one year, various properties will change, such as self-sharpness and soft hardness.
Silicon carbide resin grinding tools
Silicon carbide resin grinding tools are formed by mixing and consolidating silicon carbide abrasives and resins. They are pressed with phenolic resins, and after mixing with liquid resins, they are cast. It is mainly used for precision grinding. The characteristics of pressing are good durability and good wettability during grinding. Especially when processing marble, the lightness of grinding is good and the efficiency is relatively high, but the cost is relatively high. Particle size number, phenolic abrasives are easy to color when grinding and polishing light-colored stones, which is the main reason why they cannot be widely used. Grinding tools made of very fine silicon carbide powder and other materials mixed with resin are the main means for polishing granite, terrazzo, and concrete.
Ceramic abrasive tools
Ceramic abrasive tools are made of silicon carbide abrasive and glassy material and sintered at high temperature. It is characterized by good durability, but it is easy to be blocked, the phenomenon of grinding and slipping occurs, and the cost is high. It is now used less.
Metal bond grinding tool
Metal bond grinding tool, sintered from diamond and metal powder. It is characterized by high processing efficiency and good processing effect. Generally starting from 50 #, it is necessary to choose carefully for coarse grain size 20 #, otherwise, it will be difficult to process after the coarse scratches. In addition, the finest granularity used does not exceed 400 #. This tool is used to trim rough surfaces. It is the most effective tool. It can process a satisfactory plane. The cost is higher than the previous one, but its processing efficiency is high. Sex is unmatched by ordinary abrasives.
Resin bond grinding disc
Resin bond grinding disc, made of diamond single crystal, fine powder and resin consolidated. It is characterized by lower cost than metal and high processing efficiency. It is mainly used for fine grinding and polishing of stone. It is a continuous grinding and polishing tool after the metal grinding disc is smoothed. The cost is moderate.
Diamond soft abrasive pad
Diamond soft abrasive pad is a new tool for ground renovation in recent years. Its lightness and unique flexibility make it have good adhesion to the processed surface, and can provide particle sizes from 20 # to 3000 #, and BUFF black and white (polished). This type of abrasive uses diamond as the abrasive, which is light in weight and can effectively protect the soft part of the stone surface during grinding. The processed product has high gloss; it is connected with a nylon hook and loop method and is easy to operate.
Selection of grinding tools for different machines during refurbishment
It is our goal to refurbish the stone floor to achieve a good finish. At the same time, the actual cost must also be taken into account. According to the requirements of the engineering party, the grinding tools must be reasonably configured for the different conditions of the grinding and polishing machine to achieve the intended purpose.
First of all, there is an estimate of the project cost. If it is considered that the cost is relatively low, the construction period is allowed, and the acceptance work is loose, you can consider using ordinary grinding tools.
The requirements for the construction period are relatively strict. It is best to use diamond-type grinding tools and select them appropriately according to the conditions of the machine. If the machine is heavy and the working speed is high, durable tools can be used; if the machine is light and the working speed is low, sharp tools can be used. In addition, during the grinding process, processing efficiency can be achieved by changing the amount of water.
Sometimes, when “leveling” the ground, using coarse-grained diamond resin abrasive discs (or diamond soft abrasive discs), you will not feel able to grind them; you can use less water, increase pressure, and improve the machine under the same conditions. Rotational speed, the fastest way to get the blade out of the cutting edge, the best method is to use metal cutting blades, or metal abrasive blades for preliminary work,
In order to ensure the flatness of the ground, before the 500 # processing, try to use a good flatness abrasive sheet, and then use a diamond soft abrasive sheet to grind. Its good adhesion can effectively improve the grinding efficiency and obtain good gloss.
In order to overcome the scratch on the stone when polishing, it is better that the hardness of the grinding tool is softer, which is good for glazing. At the same time, in order to improve the gloss, the method of reducing the amount of water, increasing the rotation speed of the machine, and increasing the surface temperature , Will also promote the improvement of gloss. In short, the polishing of stone is a complicated physico-chemical process. It has both the physical micro-plowing effect and the pure chemical reaction on the surface. It depends on the situation, and it is by no means the same.
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